Substitution of a single shell construction for the spokes, brake disk and hub of a wheel causes an increase in its mass and moment of inertia. Wheel rotation causes a gyroscopic effect that increases with increasing moment of inertia. Thus the rotating wheel improves the motorcycle stability especially, at high speeds.
The wheel rigidity and strength are increased, the construction and assembly are simplified.
The mass and moment of inertia of a spoked wheel are moderate. Wheel oscillations disturb motorcycle stability.
In order to increase the motorcycle stability,
it is proposed to increase the moment of inertia of a wheel disk.
U.S. Patent. 4,488,761; Buell; Feb. 18, 1984; "Wheel disk brake"; Harley-Davidson Motor Co., Inc.
The fodder is supplied to the animals using the conveyor. The conveyor is made as a moving Mobius strip. The strip passes over the carriage. Secured to the frame are rollers and a chute.
The rollers interact with the ribbon by turning it over by 180°. Due to that, the fodder is unloaded from the conveyor into the chute. Next, the fodder is supplied from the chute to the feed-troughs.
The carriage goes over from one feed-trough to another filling them up. There is no need to stop the conveyor during the process. Unloading the fodder off the conveyor is performed automatically without using any complicated dedicated machinery.
1. A Mobius strip conveyor enables the transportation of fodder and its automatic unloading into animal feed-troughs.
2. The fodder can be distributed when the conveyor is busy.
A conveyor made as an endless rubber ribbon is employed for supplying the fodder to the animals. It has to be stopped to unload the fodder. The devices used to unload the fodder are of complicated construction.
In order to unload the fodder from the conveyor belt,
it is proposed to make the conveyor belt as a Mobius strip construction.es what they do, how long they’ve been at it, and what got them to where they are.
US Patent ( 1981)
The operating principle of a traveling wave tube (TWT) of the O–type is based on the following conditions.
1. An electron beam bunches up under the longitudinal component of the electric field of a slow electromagnetic wave (automatic phasing).
2. The bunches that are formed pass some portion of their kinetic energy to the electromagnetic wave of a slow–wave structure.
To meet the two conditions the synchronism condition should be held. The condition is that the velocity of the beam should be equal approximately to the phase velocity of the electromagnetic wave. If its velocity exceeds slightly the phase velocity (by 5 to 10%), the electrons will be in the decelerating phase of the wave for a longer time. Hence, the efficiency of the energy transfer decreases.
The phase velocity of the electromagnetic wave should be independent of the frequency of the signal, to ensure the broadband interaction. In the TWT O–type this can be achieved by use of helix– or comb–like slow–wave structures, or the chain of coupled cavities.
Apart from the TWT O–type, there exists TWT M–type, where the focusing magnetic field, the electric component of the RF–field, and the direction of the beam are perpendicular to each other (crossed fields).
The effect is widely used in:
1. microwave engineering
The maximum gain factor in an up–to–date TWT reaches up to 70 dB. The maximum efficiency is ~ 50% with recuperation of the kinetic energy of the electron beam used.
The frequency band of a low–level TWT with the helix slow–wave structure reaches up to three octaves.
Parameters of some power pulse TWT:
K – gain factor of traveling wave tube (TWT), dB (decibel)
R – interaction impedance of slow–wave structure and electron beam, Ohm
I0 – current of electron beam to be injected, A (Ampere)
U0 – voltage that accelerates electron beam, V (Volt)
L – interaction length (length of slow–wave structure), m
l – wavelength of electromagnetic radiation to be amplified, m
n – moderation factor of operating harmonic of slow–wave structure
d – loss in local absorber and slow–wave structure, dB (decibel)
1. The formula is true
a) for a cylindrical beam with longitudinal magnetic focusing (O–type beam). The pulsation of a transverse beam is ignored;
b) for a small–signal amplification mode without account of a space–charge field;
c) when the phase velocity of an electromagnetic wave is exactly equal to the injection velocity of an electron beam.
2. The gain factor ranges from 10 to 15 dB for a commercial TWT O–type with local absorption of microwave radiation.
3. The moderation factor of an operating harmonic ranges from 2 to 10. It depends on the wavelength: n = n(l). Commonly, the zero harmonic is used as an operation harmonic of the slow–wave structure, because it has the smallest wave dispersion of the moderation factor.
4. The interaction impedance depends on the wavelength (frequency) and changes across the cross–section of an interaction channel. Its typical value for the TWT of a centimeter wave band with a helix absorber is ~ 10 Ohm.
1. The RF–wave should propagate in a slow–wave structure, together with an electron beam.
2. The velocity of the electron beam should be approximately equal to that of the wave.